From 1970 to 2010, the automobile fatality rate dropped almost 60% to 11.4 fatalities per 100,000 of the population. This is a direct result of improved vehicle design and better enforcement of drunken driving laws. Unfortunately, the auto fatality rate has started to increase. By 2017, the auto fatality rate reached 12.4 fatalities per 100,000 population. This is the direct result of distracted driving. At any given time, 11% of drivers are talking on the phone or are using applications. The use of a phone, even a so called hands free phone, quadruples the risk of a crash.